Singkil Swamp Wildlife Reserve (SSWR) is the only conservation area in the coastal lowlands of Aceh as well as habitat of protected large mammals and migratory birds. Many publications related to Singkil swamp biodiversity have been published; however the understory communities were not studied. Understory communities are important part of peat swamp ecosystem. This study aimed to calculate the understory diversity and distribution using quadrat method. Nine sites were selected and 25 2m by 2m plots were established in each sites. All understorey species within plot were identified and measured their coverage. Overall, 134 species in 42 families were recorded which the community diversity in each site was categorized as moderate and high. Araceae was recorded as richest family (14 species), followed by Orchidaceae (10 species) and Annonaceae (8 species). Subsequently, there are 17 families (40.5%) categorized as very scare family which each family only contains 1 species. It means the vulnerability of the last family group is very high due to the ecosystem disturbance. Some invasive alien species were found at disturbed areas. Therefore, the pristine peatswamp ecosystem is needed to conserve as well as the disturbed area is needed to restore based on scientific approaches.

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