Assessment of Carbon Stock for a Forest to Coffee Conversion Landscape and Opportunities for Reduction Emission from Deforestation in Coffee Growing Areas of Central Aceh
Carbon (C) storage changes in terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of human land use have been concerned in order to climate change issues. Climate change threatens life as we know it – the ecosystems, ecological services, seasons and rainfall patterns of all living creatures. Therefore, the world is at a dangerous moment.
Now, reducing emissions from deforestation and conserving intact natural forests will be a key future action to mitigation climate change. Forests are both a problem and a solution for climate change. Globally, deforestation and forests degradation account for 20% (World Bank, 2007) to 25% (Santili et al., 2005; Myers, 2007) of annual total carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and to be one substantial factor of global warming as part of climate changes. Approximately 96% of the emissions from deforestation are caused by the developing nations of the tropics. Some key human-induced activities that promote deforestation and forest degradation include: poor land use policies and practices, inadequate legislation, insecure property rights, commercial agriculture and logging, and limited capacity to enforce forest protection. It’s also having resulted in serious socio-economic and environmental outcomes, many of them impacting disproportionately on the poor. The Stern report (2006) made it clear that avoiding deforestation would be among the lowest cost mitigation options to avoid increasing CO2 emissions and possibly also increasing sinks. At the same time, it has multiple co-benefits like poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation, soil and water conservation, and climate change adaptation could be enhanced.
As an important mechanism to hold climate change in the post-2012 era is forest mitigation options, especially Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD), have been the center of heated discussions and therefore the outcome of COP-13 on Climate Change was an important milestone. The Bali Road Map of the UNFCCC COP-13 made a decision on REDD (Decision 2/CP.13/ 1.(b)(iii)), calling for : “ Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. This decision followed up by COP 15 Decision in Copenhagen Accord 2009, calling for: We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus. This represents a comprehensive approach or called “REDD plus” for developing countries including both (i) reduction of emissions from forests, (ii) conservation and sustainable forest management (SFM), and (iii) enhancement of carbon stocks which can be achieved by various forest management measures. While the carbon benefits of conserving these non-forest ecosystems may be low relative to intact tropical forests, the ecological services they provide, including habitat provision for endemic species, watershed health’s, and soil conservation, are vital to human well-being and ecosystem functioning at the landscape level. REDD-plus conservation activities should therefore be undertaken within the context of integrated land use planning that maintains ecologically valuable non-forest ecosystems as well as intact tropical forests.
Reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2), could potentially be a highly cost-effective option for climate policy. Deforestation means the conversion of forest to non-forest, and is associated with land use change. Degradation in general results from unsustainable management or use of forest land. In addition to their critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate system, tropical forests are home to about half of the world’s species and provide a livelihood for millions of people. Recognizing the importance of tropical forests and the value of developing country participation in global climate change mitigation efforts, proposals are now being rapidly advanced to compensate tropical forest countries for REDD, as part of a future international climate agreement at Conference of the Parties (COP) on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that took place in Bali in December of 2007, the parties agreed that reduced emissions from deforestation would be included in the post-2012 agreements (Olander and Murray 2007, Gullison et al 2007). But, REDD also has limitations in that the only countries that may qualify are those with high deforestation rates. Countries with low deforestation rates will see little funding under the proposed system since carbon credits are only issued for emissions reductions, not carbon stored. REDD is not primarily designed to save ecosystems, it is designed to cut emissions. That means that the countries with low deforestation rates are not the primary target, because they are not emitting.
Indonesia is strongly placed to develop a national Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Project. Its confirmed and positioned Indonesia is the first ranking of the world countries in REDD Readiness Index and REDD Readiness funding, due to its stable socio-political, relative a reliable government policy and planning and a second world country with high rates of deforestation. The REDD Readiness Index demonstrates that despite the high rates of deforestation, and enormous forest sizes of countries like Brazil; countries such as Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, Peru, Papua New Guinea and Panama are more “ready” to deliver REDD projects for the international compliance carbon market. It’s also illustrates a country’s preparedness to implement sustainable REDD projects combined with the chances of the successful outcome of a REDD project. Avoided deforestation activities in climate change mitigation are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3–0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 × 105 g) CO2·yr−1 in emission reductions and a 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5–2.7 Gt CO2·yr−1 in emission reductions (Kindermann, et al., 2008).
Conversion of forests in Sumatra is common to meet worldwide demand for global consumer products is leading to deforestation and a range of ecological and social impacts. As a result, agriculture is widely believed to be one of the main causes of deforestation. Around the world, forests are giving way to plantations for coffee, spices, oil palm among many other crops. According to Gaveau, et al (2009), Philpott, et al (2008) and WWF (2007), that forest of Bukit Barisan National Park in Lampung Province 67,225 ha of the original forest of 310,670 ha that remained in 1972, representing a 21% loss from 1972 to 2006. The majority (80%) of forest conversion resulted from agricultural development. The agents of deforestation are farmers and estimated 15,000 farmers are currently growing coffee in national park ; one of the immediate causes is coffee price; and the underlying causes are law enforcement and socio-economic condition. Farmers grow coffee instead of working elsewhere because rural labor is poorly compensated (around $2 per day). Higher local prices for coffee combined with low labour costs, rather than coffee price per se, is the synergistic underlying cause of deforestation in Indonesia’s main robusta coffee producing region in Lampung.
For a long time, Central Aceh and its surrounding areas are known as famous producer the agroforestry-based organic coffee, namely Gayo Coffee. Gayo is refer to one of Aceh’s ethnic whose they are living on Gayo Plateau, distributed at three district of Aceh province, i.e. Central Aceh District, Bener Meriah District and Gayo Luwes District. This arabica coffee growing region located in adjacent areas of high-rich biodversity and high-storage forest carbon of Leuser Forest Ecosystem and Ulu Masen Forest Ecosystem. Originally, coffee culture in the area is commonly done by conversion of natural forests to coffee plantation by slash and burn in land clearing.
The research’s aims are:
- To estimate the carbon stock of primary and secondary forests around the coffee plantation in Central Aceh.
- To estimate the carbon stock of coffee plantation in Central Aceh based on various coffee cultures.
- To explore opportunities of coffee agroforestry system for reduction emission from deforestation