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Archive for February, 2011

Satwa Dilindungi

Orangutan, Berliner Sejak 1928

Penulis: Indira Permanasari S | Editor: Nasru Alam Aziz
Rabu, 23 Februari 2011 | 18:47 WIB

Dibaca: 1195

KOMPAS/WAWAN H PRABOWO Orang utan

KOMPAS.com — Berlin sebagai kota multikultur tidak hanya tecermin dalam kehidupan sehari-hari warganya, melainkan juga di Kebun Binatang Berlin, rumah bagi ribuan spesies dari berbagai negara. Salah satu penghuninya adalah hewan eksotik dari Indonesia, orangutan sumatera (Pongo abelii).

Di Kebun Binatang Berlin, Bini dan Bagus, anaknya, asyik bergelayutan di antara tali-temali di dalam kandang mereka. Orangutan menghabiskan sebagian besar waktu dalam hidupnya di atas pohon. Ketika Bini bertingkah lucu, seperti berjungkir balik, pengunjung yang menyaksikannya tersenyum. Pengunjung betah berlama-lama di kandang primata, yang tersedia kursi dan bersuhu hangat.

Bini lahir di Kebun Binatang Berlin tahun 1980. Itu berarti dari dalam kandangnya, orangutan yang aslinya hidup di hutan tropis itu ikut menjadi saksi bisu runtuhnya tembok Berlin dan perubahan yang terjadi di kota itu.

Bukan baru-baru saja orangutan menghuni Kebun Binatang Berlin. Tobias Rahde, kurator Zoologischer Garten, mengatakan, orangutan pertama lahir di Kebun Binatang Berlin tahun 1928. Setelah itu, masih ada tiga kelahiran lainnya sebelum pecah Perang Dunia II. Setelah perang usai, program pembiakan dimulai dan bayi orangutan baru lahir tahun 1963.

Saat ini, Kebun Binatang Berlin mempunyai dua kelompok orangutan sumatera. Pasangan Bini, Mano, lahir di Kebun Binatang Rotterdam tahun 1977. Mereka hidup bersama anak mereka Bagus yang lahir tahun 2002 di Kebun Binatang Berlin. Kemudian datang kelompok orangutan kedua, yakni Enche, yang lahir di Kebun Binatang Heidelberg tahun 1989 dan Njamuk yang lahir di Kebun Binatang Berlin tahun 1990. Dari keduanya lahir Satu, anak mereka, pada tahun 2002.

Tobias Rahde mengatakan, pihaknya tidak lagi mendapatkan orangutan secara langsung dari Indonesia. Mereka tidak lagi mengambil hewan dari habitat liar aslinya karena sebagian besar spesies itu terancam punah. Orangutan yang mereka miliki sekarang lahir di kebun binatang.

Sekalipun hewan-hewan tersebut lahir di Berlin, secara biologis tetap merupakan mahluk daerah tropis. Oleh karena itu, selama bulan-bulan musim dingin, hewan-hewan dari negara lain yang beriklim lebih panas disediakan pula ruangan tertutup khusus. Selama musim panas, tidak ada masalah karena cukup hangat. The Monkey House dan Tropical House sengaja dibuat dan selesai dibangun akhir tahun 1970-an. “Mereka tetap hidup dan lebih mudah beradaptasi lantaran lahir di Eropa,” ujarnya.

Selain orangutan, beberapa hewan dari Indonesia lainnya ialah tupai (Callosciurus prevostii) dan lutung (Trachypithecus auratus). Pada tahun 1984 dan awal 1990-an, mantan Presiden Soeharto pernah menghadiahkan komodo (Varanus komodoensis) kepada Aquarium Berlin, hanya saja reptil raksasa itu sudah lama mati.

Hewan nyaris punah  

Tidak hanya satwa langka orangutan yang tinggal di Kebun Binatang Berlin. Spesies yang terancam punah dapat dilihat di sini, seperti reptil tuatara (Spehenodon punctatus) asal Selandia Baru yang dapat berumur hingga lebih dari seratus tahun, penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), badak hitam (Diceros bicornis) dari Afrika, gajah asia (Elephas maximus), dan tentu saja knut Si Beruang Es (Ursus maritimus).

Kini di Kebun Binatang Berlin terdapat 1.028 mamalia (174 spesies), 2.310 burung (329), 435 reptil (73), 500 amfibi (52), 5.434 ikan (511), serta 6.006 hewan tanpa tulang belakang (586). Spesies tersebut berasal dari berbagai benua. Dengan semua hewan itu, Kebun Binatang Berlin yang dibuka pertama kali tahun 1 Agustus 1844 itu merupakan kebun binatang dengan jumlah spesies terbanyak dan terbesar di dunia.

Tobias mengungkapkan, Kebun Binatang Berlin bersama dengan kebun binatang lain di Eropa bekerja sama dalam berbagai program pembiakan. Kebun Bintang Berlin terlibat dalam 88 program pembiakan berbeda mulai dari tikus lemur yang sangat kecil hingga gajah asia. Khusus untuk orangutan dari Indonesia, Kebun Binatang Berlin terlibat dalam European Endangered Species Programme (EEP). Bayi-bayi hasil pembiakan yang lahir sebagian ditransfer ke berbagai kebun binatang lain di seluruh dunia.

(Indira Permanasari, wartawan Harian Kompas peserta Program Nahaufnahme-Pertukaran Jurnalis, Goethe Institut)

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Tidak Gampang Beruang Madu Bereproduksi

Penulis: Lukas Adi Prasetya | Editor: I Made Asdhiana
Rabu, 23 Februari 2011 | 22:56 WIB

Dibaca: 654

KOMPAS/LUKAS ADI PRASETYA Beruang madu di kawasan wisata pendidikan lingkungan hidup, Balikpapan, Kalimantan Timur.

BALIKPAPAN, KOMPAS.com – Beruang madu (Helarctos malayanus), keberadaannya terus menyusut. Namun bukan perkara gampang menambah jumlahnya. Tak hanya karena luas habitatnya berkurang akibat penambangan batubara di Kalimantan Timur, namun satwa ini pun juga seperti enggan bereproduksi jika luas wilayahnya terus menyusut.

“Ada sifat beruang madu yang unik, yakni tidak atau menahan untuk punya anak jika merasa anaknya nanti tak mendapat luas area jelajah yang sesuai. Keadaan ini yang sepertinya terjadi sekarang,” ujar Caecilia Nurimpi Kanasari, Kepala Divisi Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup di Kawasan Wisata Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup (KWPLH), Balikpapan, Kaltim, Rabu (23/2/2011).

Beruang madu ditetapkan pemerintah tahun 1973 sebagai salah satu hewan yang dilindungi. Saat ini diperkirakan hanya terdapat 50-an beruang madu di alam liar, yakni Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain, dan lima yang ditempatkan dalam KWPLH. KWPLH adalah salah satu unit pengelola di bawah Badan Pengelola Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain dan Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Manggar. KWPLH terletak di Jalan Soekarno Hatta km 23 (jalan penghubung Samarinda-Balikpapan).

Beruang madu adalah yang terkecil dari delapan jenis beruang di dunia. Pada Senin (21/2/2011) lalu, beruang diperingati secara internasional. Di Indonesia, bertempat di Balikpapan.

Dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun terakhir, populasi beruang madu di dunia berdasarkan hilangnya habitat mereka, diperkirakan 30 persen. Karena itulah, gerakan penyelamatan satwa ini harus digencarkan.

“Hewan ini sudah tak bisa menyelamatkan habitat mereka sendiri,” ujar Caecilia yang juga Ketua Panitia Peringatan Hari Beruang se-Dunia di Balikpapan.

Di Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain (Kaltim) yang seluas 15.000 hektar, diperkirakan dihuni 50 beruang madu. Bagi beruang dengan jumlah seperti itu, memiliki daerah jelajah 15.000 hektar pun, bisa dibilang kurang. Sebab, seekor beruang jantan setidaknya menjelajahi hingga 25 km persegi. Beruang betina, mungkin separuhnya. Apalagi daerah sekitar hutan lindung sudah ada penambangan batu bara.

Luasan habitat yang berkurang adalah persoalan serius. Namun ancaman dari pemburu liar pun tak bisa dibaikan. Karena itu, menurut Caecilia, patroli di hutan lindung tersebut, juga pemantauan dari para pemerhati beruang wajib dilakukan rutin. “Jangan sampai beruang yang menjadi maskot Balipapan ini berkurang jumlahnya,” katanya.

Selain 50-an beruang di alam liar, terdapat 5 beruang ditempatkan di Kawasan Wisata Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup (KWPLH), Balikpapan Utara. Beruang-beruang hasil sitaan dari kolektor tahun 2006 lalu ini, diberi tempat jelajah 1,3 hektar. Sebelum diselamatkan dan ditempatkan di KWPLH, kondisi mereka mengenaskan. Salah satu beruang benama Haris, mata kanannya buta akibat pukulan majikannya dulu. Benny, beruang lain, kuku dan taringnya dipotong.

“Sempitnya area jelajah bagi lima beruang (dua betina, tiga jantan) di KWPLH ditengarai juga bisa menjadikan beruang madu tersebut belum saling tertarik untuk menghasilkan keturunan. Beruang butuh ruang jelajah yang sangat luas,” kata Caecilia.

Beruang madu adalah beruang terkecil dari delapan jenis beruang di dunia. Berat hewan yang berbulu hitam dan tebal ini hanya 30-65 kg. Beruang ini lebih pendek ketimbang tinggi orang dewasa. Setiap beruang madu memiliki tanda unik yakni warna kuning atau oranye, membentuk seperti huruf V, U, atau melingkar.

Hutan hujan tropis adalah habitatnya. Makanan pokok beruang madu yakni serangga, namun ia juga menyukai buah buahan dan madu. Saat makan buah, beruang madu memakan bijinya. Setelah melewati proses pencernaan, bijian mulai bertunas. Itulah sebabnya hewan pemanjat ulung ini berperan penting dalam penyebaran biji di hutan.

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Assessment of Carbon Stock for a Forest to Coffee Conversion Landscape and Opportunities for Reduction Emission from Deforestation in Coffee Growing Areas of Central Aceh

By

Onrizal

Introduction

Carbon (C) storage changes in terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of human land use have been concerned in order to climate change issues. Climate change threatens life as we know it – the ecosystems, ecological services, seasons and rainfall patterns of all living creatures. Therefore, the world is at a dangerous moment.

Now, reducing emissions from deforestation and conserving intact natural forests will be a key future action to mitigation climate change. Forests are both a problem and a solution for climate change. Globally, deforestation and forests degradation account for 20% (World Bank, 2007) to 25% (Santili et al., 2005; Myers, 2007) of annual total carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and to be one substantial factor of global warming as part of climate changes. Approximately 96% of the emissions from deforestation are caused by the developing nations of the tropics. Some key human-induced activities that promote deforestation and forest degradation include: poor land use policies and practices, inadequate legislation, insecure property rights, commercial agriculture and logging, and limited capacity to enforce forest protection. It’s also having resulted in serious socio-economic and environmental outcomes, many of them impacting disproportionately on the poor. The Stern report (2006) made it clear that avoiding deforestation would be among the lowest cost mitigation options to avoid increasing CO2 emissions and possibly also increasing sinks. At the same time, it has multiple co-benefits like poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation, soil and water conservation, and climate change adaptation could be enhanced.

As an important mechanism to hold climate change in the post-2012 era is forest mitigation options, especially Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD), have been the center of heated discussions and therefore the outcome of COP-13 on Climate Change was an important milestone. The Bali Road Map of the UNFCCC COP-13 made a decision on REDD (Decision 2/CP.13/ 1.(b)(iii)), calling for : “ Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. This decision followed up by COP 15 Decision in Copenhagen Accord 2009, calling for: We recognize the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests and agree on the need to provide positive incentives to such actions through the immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD-plus. This represents a comprehensive approach or called “REDD plus” for developing countries including both (i) reduction of emissions from forests, (ii) conservation and sustainable forest management (SFM), and (iii) enhancement of carbon stocks which can be achieved by various forest management measures. While the carbon benefits of conserving these non-forest ecosystems may be low relative to intact tropical forests, the ecological services they provide, including habitat provision for endemic species, watershed health’s, and soil conservation, are vital to human well-being and ecosystem functioning at the landscape level. REDD-plus conservation activities should therefore be undertaken within the context of integrated land use planning that maintains ecologically valuable non-forest ecosystems as well as intact tropical forests.

Reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2), could potentially be a highly cost-effective option for climate policy. Deforestation means the conversion of forest to non-forest, and is associated with land use change. Degradation in general results from unsustainable management or use of forest land. In addition to their critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate system, tropical forests are home to about half of the world’s species and provide a livelihood for millions of people. Recognizing the importance of tropical forests and the value of developing country participation in global climate change mitigation efforts, proposals are now being rapidly advanced to compensate tropical forest countries for REDD, as part of a future international climate agreement at Conference of the Parties (COP) on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that took place in Bali in December of 2007, the parties agreed that reduced emissions from deforestation would be included in the post-2012 agreements (Olander and Murray 2007, Gullison et al 2007). But, REDD also has limitations in that the only countries that may qualify are those with high deforestation rates. Countries with low deforestation rates will see little funding under the proposed system since carbon credits are only issued for emissions reductions, not carbon stored. REDD is not primarily designed to save ecosystems, it is designed to cut emissions. That means that the countries with low deforestation rates are not the primary target, because they are not emitting.

Indonesia is strongly placed to develop a national Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Project. Its confirmed and positioned Indonesia is the first ranking of the world countries in REDD Readiness Index and REDD Readiness funding, due to its stable socio-political, relative a reliable government policy and planning and a second world country with high rates of deforestation. The REDD Readiness Index demonstrates that despite the high rates of deforestation, and enormous forest sizes of countries like Brazil; countries such as Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, Peru, Papua New Guinea and Panama are more “ready” to deliver REDD projects for the international compliance carbon market. It’s also illustrates a country’s preparedness to implement sustainable REDD projects combined with the chances of the successful outcome of a REDD project. Avoided deforestation activities in climate change mitigation are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3–0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 × 105 g) CO2·yr−1 in emission reductions and a 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5–2.7 Gt CO2·yr−1 in emission reductions (Kindermann, et al., 2008).

Conversion of forests in Sumatra is common  to meet worldwide demand for global consumer products is leading to deforestation and a range of ecological and social impacts. As a result, agriculture is widely believed to be one of the main causes of deforestation. Around the world, forests are giving way to plantations for coffee, spices, oil palm  among many other crops.  According to Gaveau, et  al (2009), Philpott, et al (2008) and WWF (2007), that  forest of  Bukit Barisan National Park in Lampung Province  67,225 ha of the original forest of 310,670 ha that remained in 1972, representing a 21% loss from 1972 to 2006. The majority (80%) of forest conversion resulted from agricultural development. The agents of deforestation are farmers  and estimated 15,000 farmers  are currently growing coffee in national park ; one of the immediate causes is coffee price; and the underlying causes are law enforcement and socio-economic condition. Farmers grow coffee instead of working elsewhere because rural labor is poorly compensated (around $2 per day). Higher local prices for coffee combined with low labour costs, rather than coffee price per se, is the synergistic underlying cause of deforestation in Indonesia’s main robusta coffee producing region in Lampung.

For a long time, Central Aceh and its surrounding areas are known as famous producer the agroforestry-based organic coffee, namely Gayo Coffee. Gayo is refer to one of Aceh’s ethnic whose they are living on Gayo Plateau, distributed at three district of Aceh province, i.e. Central Aceh District, Bener Meriah District and Gayo Luwes District. This arabica coffee growing region located in adjacent areas of high-rich biodversity and high-storage forest carbon of Leuser Forest Ecosystem and Ulu Masen Forest Ecosystem.  Originally, coffee culture in the area is commonly done by conversion of natural forests to coffee plantation by slash and burn in land clearing.

Objectives

The research’s aims are:

  1. To estimate the carbon stock of primary and secondary forests around the coffee plantation in Central Aceh.
  2. To estimate the carbon stock of coffee plantation in Central Aceh based on various coffee cultures.
  3. To explore  opportunities  of coffee agroforestry system for reduction emission from deforestation

CoverCentralAcehCoffee

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